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Remnant Assets / Residual Assets

Millions In Assets Overlooked by Liquidators and Trustees

Liquidators often overlook assets, owned by debtors, which are held by state unclaimed property agencies.  Sometimes the value of those overlooked assets is substantial.

Several years ago, a debtor reopened its S.D.N.Y. Chapter 11 liquidation case, which had been closed for over three years, to recover over $1 million in assets held in debtor’s name by the New York State abandoned property fund.  In another case, it was $300,000 of unclaimed funds that were discovered by bankruptcy counsel after the case was closed.

These are only two of many cases I’m know of in which Chapter 11 liquidators have failed to collect their unclaimed assets.

Of course, not every liquidation has unclaimed assets.  It depends on the business of the debtor.  For instance, financial institutions very often have many items of unclaimed assets.  Entertainment and media companies, although they typically have fewer items, do have some large royalty items that go astray.

How Do These Assets Get To The Various States?

All 50 states have enacted some version of the Uniform Unclaimed Property Act which requires businesses which cannot locate creditors, shareholders, or others they owe money or other assets to, to deliver or “escheat” that property to the state of the owner’s last known address.  The state then holds that property in its unclaimed property fund until the owner asserts a claim to it.  These funds are a significant source of revenue for the states which typically can use the funds until the owner shows up and asserts a claim.  New York State, for instance, holds  $12 billion in unclaimed assets.  California has over $6 billion.  These funds increase every year.


Although these assets are often remote and difficult to recover, liquidators should be aware of them and, where appropriate, consider selling them along with other remnant assets of the debtor.  Often these sales are the last transaction a liquidator makes before closing the case and they include all the residual assets known and unknown uncollected by the debtor.

in Remnant Assets / Residual Assets, RJP's Corporate Bankruptcy / Corporate Liquidations Blog, Unclaimed or Abandoned Property

More Assets Overlooked by Debtors-In-Possession & Trustees

 Another class of assets typically overlooked by liquidators are unclaimed dividends deposited in U.S. Bankruptcy Courts.

In a bankruptcy case, the bankruptcy trustee “dividend” checks to creditors of the debtor in payment of allowed claims.  Since payment of these claims often take years, a creditor’s address may change and some of these checks get lost and go uncashed.  At the conclusion of the bankruptcy case, the trustee is obligated to turnover the proceeds of uncashed checks to the bankruptcy court with a list of the payees.  The court eventually remits those funds to the U.S. Treasury.

A creditor who discovers that it is owed an unclaimed dividend can claim payment from the court at any time.  It is a difficult job to search for these unclaimed dividends since most bankruptcy courts do not have a list of those unpaid creditors online.  Some courts will send a copy of the list upon written request.  Other courts require you to personally appear and review records in the courthouse -  – a tedious procedure to be sure.

Some of these unclaimed dividends are substantial.  I know of a case in which the former attorneys for a liquidated debtor, in a case long closed, received a $300,000 check in the mail, payable to its now-defunct client, in payment of a claim filed by the client in another bankruptcy case years ealier.

The liquidated debtor reopened the case years after it had been closed to deal with the new-found money.  Fortunately, in this case, the check was mailed to a law firm rather than to the creditor itself.  Had it been mailed to the creditor, it would have been returned as undeliverable and wound up in the federal treasury for use by the U.S. Government rather than the creditors of the bankrupt.

How can a bankruptcy trustee know if its debtor has pending claims in bankruptcy?  It’s nearly an impossible task to find an answer to that question with any certainty.  The best a trustee can do for the creditors in the bankruptcy is to try to sell contingent and known and unknown assets.  The trustee thereby fulfilled its obligation to maximize asset value by realizing some money for these unknown and unclaimed funds.  

in Abandoned Dividends, Remnant Assets / Residual Assets, RJP's Corporate Bankruptcy / Corporate Liquidations Blog, Unclaimed or Abandoned Property